Modifications and Adaptations

While we offer a number of games, most of these are common games and activities with simple alterations. Kids will be familiar with them and time won't need to be spent learning the rules so the focus will be on the actual activity. With these easy adaptations you will quickly see how activities you currently use can be made inclusive for everyone.

Consider this...Changing what is expected (either an outcome or an expectation) is modifying, while giving supports to help achieve what is expected is accommodating. 


Equipment Modifications

Before any modifications are made, check with everyone to see if this is desirable. The purpose of equipment modifications is to make the game or activity more fun for everybody.

Description Effect
Lighter, softer, or larger types of equipment (balls, discs, bean bags) *Safety note: many children with spina bifida are allergic to latex therefore balloons are not advised. Slows game and allows more time to prepare for and execute skill
Shorter, lighter striking implements  Allows greater control for weaker and less skilled player
Larger striking implement (eg larger sized racquets); Lower, closer, and larger goal or target area (eg. for basketball or bucket ball) Reduces number of misses and increases opportunity for success; easier hand-eye coordination
Lighter, softer, smaller balls; Tethered ball can be attached to the wrist More easily picked up, caught and retained
Bean bags substituted for balls Not as elusive as balls and may be easier to throw for student with poor hand function
Partially deflated balls for dribbling and kicking Slows movement of the ball and allows more time to prepare and execute the skill activities
Brightly coloured balls or objects that make sound More easily caught
Ramp to distribute a ball or object Easier to reach
Use flat dots/spots instead of cones; use tall cones or a small stool Raises items that are diffcult to reach on the floor​


Skill Level Modifications

Description Effect
Skills such as wheeling substituted for running, rolling a ball off a lap for kicking, striking a soccer ball with a floor hockey stick instead of the foot Increases success and opportunity to be involved in game play
Simplify tasks (eg. drop and catch the ball rather than bounce it consecutively) and use lead up activities to prepare the child Increases success and opportunity to be involved in class activity
Props used to enhance skills; for example, a towel or pool noodle extends the reach for tag games Increases level of success and motivation for participation


Rules Modifications

Description Effect
No direct challenge when ball comes within 2 metres of player More time to prepare for and execute skill
Differential scoring system allowing points for specific behaviours; for example, passing, touching ball Recognizes effort, learning and success
Only essential rules used Reduces game complexity
Complete end line used as goal Allows more frequent scoring opportunities and use of multiple goalkeepers
Unlimited number of contacts with ball before crossing net or centre line Increases opportunity to make contact with ball
Unequal numbers in team groupings Matches teams
Number of trials increased; for example, unlimited number of attempts to strike ball Increases level of success and opportunity to practice emerging skills
Allow extra tags so the child is not out right away Increases opportunity for success as well as fun and enjoyment
Allow child to use their hands where normally it might not be allowed Focused on the abilities of the child and facilitates inclusion
Add peer assistance when needed (for example an extra goalie) Increases opporunities for success and increased self esteem


Modifications to the Facility or Environment

Description Effect
Smaller playing area used Increases opportunity for application of skill and participation in flow of game
Target lowered or moved closer Reduces number of misses and increases opportunity for success
Decrease distance - start or finish line moved; for example, next runner in relay starts when student reaches halfway point Increases level of success and opportunity to be involved in game play
Designated position/function assigned to reduce area to be travelled; for example, designated pitcher, goalie or foul shooter Increases successful participation in the game
Modify Boudaries: establish designated zones/spaces for students to travel in; include "safe zones" for wheelchair users/runners Makes games safer for everyone